Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) often result from poor ergonomics and over-exertion injuries. According the MSHA’s publicly-available data, over-exertion injuries result in more days lost than almost any other injury category. Most lost time over-exertion injuries result from the handling of supplies or materials, walking, running, and machine maintenance. Sprains or strains of the lower back, shoulders and knee are the most common types of over-exertion injuries.

Scene of miners over-exerting themselves pushing ore cars in hot conditions